Ib History Essay Questions Stalin And Hitler



Specimen Paper III

  1. Why were there two revolutions in Russia in 1917?
  2. How and why did the First World War bring about social and economic changes in any one European country?
  3. What were the main criticisms of the League of Nations and to what extent were they justified?
  4. How far is it true to say that the Weimar Republic was a complete failure?
  5. Compare and contrast the domestic policies of Hitler and Mussolini up to 1939.
  6. What were the main causes and results of the Spanish Civil War?
  7. What do you understand by the term appeasement? How far was appeasement responsible for the outbreak of war in 1939?
  8. Evaluate the domestic and foreign policies of Khrushchev.
  9. Examine the impact of the Cold War on Western Europe between 1945 and 1965.
  10. Compare and contrast the policies and importance to their countries of Adenauer and De Gaulle.
  11. Analyze the main developments in education in any one European country in the twentieth century.
  12. What were the main economic problems faced by the Soviet bloc (excluding the USSR) between 1950 and 1990?

1998

  1. Evaluate the relative importance of imperialism, the arms race and the failure of diplomacy in causing the First World War.
  2. Compare and contrast the roles of Lenin and Trotsky in establishing the USSR up to 1924.
  3. How far is it true to say that the Weimar Republic was doomed from its foundation?
  4. “Its frown will soon be more dreaded than a nation’s arms.” Why did this comment on the League of Nations, made in 1929 prove to be incorrect?
  5. Compare and contrast the foreign policies up to the outbreak of the Second World War of Mussolini and Hitler.
  6. Analyse the causes and results of the Spanish Civil War.
  7. Assess the impact of Hitler, and the Second World War on one Scandinavian country.
  8. How and why did the Second World War bring about the social and economic changes in one European country excluding Scandinavia?
  9. Why and with what results for Europe did the USSR become involved in the Cold War up to the death of Stalin?
  10. Explain whom you consider was more successful in his own country, Adenauer or de Gaulle?
  11. Analyze the internal history of one East European country, excluding the USSR, from 1953 to 1990.
  12. How has twentieth century Europe been affected by two of the following: increased leisure opportunities; pressure groups; peace movements?

1999

  1. Analyze the part played by the failure of Tsardom in causing the February/March Revolution in Russia in 1917.
  2. “In 1914 Europe arrived at a point when every country was afraid of the present and Germany was afraid of the future.” What do you understand by this comment and how far do you agree with it?
  3. Compare and contrast the economic aims and policies of Lenin (1917 to 1924) and Stalin (1928 to 1941).
  4. How and why was Hitler able to become dictator of Germany?
  5. Why was the League of Nations ignored in the pre-war crises of 1938 to 1939?
  6. With what justification can the term “total war” be applied to the Second World War?
  7. Compare and contrast political and economic developments under Adenauer in Germany and de Gaulle in France.
  8. How, why, and with what success, did Tito follow independent policies in Yugoslavia between 1945 and 1980?
  9. “Politically Khrushchev brought new hope to the USSR and to Europe, economically he was a disaster.” How justified is this comment of Khrushchev as leader of the Soviet Union 1953 to 1964?
  10. Explain in what ways and to what extent either Spain or Portugal moved away from dictatorship in the 1970s.
  11. Assess the importance of the changes in either the media or working conditions and patterns, in twentieth century Europe.

May 2000
1. To what extent were weaknesses of the French Monarchy responsible for the outbreak of revolution in France in 1789?
2. What part did Napoleon I’s policies play in his fall from power in 1814?
3. Evaluate the extent to which Metternich achieved his aims for Austria and for Europe.
4. How far is it true to say that, ‘Louis XVIII’s policies proved that the Bourbon restoration in France could work, but that the policies of Charles X ensured it would fail’?
5. Account for the outbreak of any two revolutions in 1848 and assess their results.
6. Analyse the aims, motives and policies of Cavour between 1852 and 1861.
7. Compare and contrast Bismarck’s policies towards Austria and France between 1862 and 1871.
8. In what ways did the domestic and foreign policies of Disraeli benefit Britain?
9. How far is it true to say that Russia was transformed into a modern country between 1855
and 1900?
10. How important was the search for raw materials and new markets as a reason for European imperialism?
11. To what extent, and with what results, did Napoleon III liberalise the Second Empire in France?
12. Discuss the changing relations between either Sweden and Norway or Finland and Russia in the nineteenth century.
13. Account for the popularity of the novel in nineteenth century Europe.
14. In what ways did the crises and political scandals in France both weaken and strengthen the Third Republic between 1880 and 1905?
15. Compare and contrast the causes of the 1905 and February/March 1917 revolutions in Russia.
16. ‘The Versailles Treaty was criticised by both winners and losers’. How justified was this criticism?
17. What were the political and economic successes and failures of the Weimar Republic?
18. Why did the history of Italy from 1900 to 1922 lead to the rise of Mussolini and the establishment of a Fascist Regime?
19. What was the impact of the Wall Street crash upon any one European country (excluding Germany) up to 1939?
20. Explain why Franco’s forces won the Spanish Civil War, and why the Republican forces lost.
21. Why, and with what results, was the policy of appeasement adopted by Britain and France inthe 1930s?
22. Compare the Cold War policies of Stalin and Khrushchev from 1945 to 1964.
23. Explain how any one western European state recovered from the devastation of the Second World War.
24. What factors led to the collapse of Communist domination in Eastern Europe by 1990?
25. ‘A revolution.’ How accurately does this describe changes in transport in twentieth century
Europe?

 November 2000
1. Assess the importance of the Third Estate on the outbreak and development of the French Revolution between 1789 and 1795.
2. Evaluate the foreign and domestic achievements of Napoleon I as Emperor of France (1804-1815).
3. How far do you agree with the statement that ‘security not revenge’ was the main objective of the statesmen at the Congress of Vienna in 1815?
4. How far can it be argued that “Gladstone pursued a more successful foreign policy than Disraeli”?
5. How serious an obstacle to Italian unification was the Papacy between 1815 and 1870?
6. Why was it that Prussia, rather than Austria, had achieved the dominant position in Germany
by 1866?
7. “The establishment of the Dual Monarchy in 1867 delayed, but could not prevent, the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.” How justified is this view?
8. What factors led to the increase of opposition to the ruling Romanov dynasty in Russia between 1855 and 1905?
9. Explain the impact of developments in transportation in the nineteenth century on industrial expansion in Europe. You may choose to limit your answer to one country.
10. What factors contributed to the demand for the reform and extension of education in the nineteenth century?
11. How stable was the Third French Republic in the years before and after the First World War?
12. By referring to any one Scandinavian country explain the processes which led to the
development of constitutional government in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
13. “The fact that Stalin became the dominant leader of Russia by 1929 indicates that he was a more skilful politician than Trotsky.” How far do you agree with this statement?
14. “Of all the factors that led to the outbreak of World War One in 1914, imperialism was by far the most important.” How far do you agree with this statement?
15. What was the significance of the Locarno Agreement (1925) for European affairs between 1919 and 1939?
16. Critically evaluate the successes and failures of Mussolini’s domestic policies in Italy between 1922 and 1939.
17. Why did the Constitutional Monarchy in Spain collapse in 1931?
18. “In reality Hitler and the Nazi Party were far less totalitarian than is commonly believed.” By referring to events in Germany between 1933 and 1945 comment on the truth of this statement.
19. Analyse the factors which enabled the USSR to survive the German invasion of 1941.
20. Compare and contrast the foreign policies of Khrushchev and Brezhnev.
21. How far did the Marshall Plan succeed in fulfilling its objectives for Western Europe by 1955?
22. To what extent did the establishment of the communist bloc between 1945 and 1950 represent the failure of democracy in Eastern Europe?
23. Examine how and why the position of women in European society has changed since 1945.
24. By referring to any one European country after 1945 analyse how developments in domestic
politics were affected by the Second World War.
25. Why did so many countries in Eastern Europe turn away from communism in the 1980s?

May 2001


Click HERE for Paper III Past Paper Questions and Responses
 

1998

Topic 1: Causes, practices and effects of war

  1. To what extent should Germany be held responsible for causing both the First and Second World Wars?
  2. Why was there so much civil strife and civil war in China during the first half of the twentieth century?
  3. Compare and contrast the outcome and effects of two revolutionary wars, each chosen from a different region.
  4. Explain the impact of war on two of the following: women, the arts, the media.

Topic 3: The Rise and rule of single party states

  1. To what extent is it true to say that a successful economic policy is the most important factor for a single party ruler to remain in power? Examples should be given from two countries each chosen from a different region.
  2. Compare and contrast the foreign policies of two rulers of single party states, each chosen from a different region.
  3. To what extent was Hitler a) responsible for, and b) driven by ideological beliefs of Nazism?
  4. How far would you agree that single party states have been more interested in controlling the minds of young people than in providing genuine education?

Topic 5: The Cold War

  1. Examine the conflicting aims and policies of rival powers which caused the Cold War.
  2. Assess the importance of two of the following in influencing the development of the Cold War: Marshall Aid, Warsaw Pact, arms control, détente.
  3. Examine the impact of the Cold War on two countries (excluding the superpowers), each chosen from a different region.
  4. “The build up of missiles in Cuba in 1962 was a deliberate, provocative and unjustified action.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
  5. What were the main social and cultural consequences of the Cold War?
  1. “Single party states use education as propaganda to obtain support rather than to instil (increase) knowledge.” How far do you agree with this judgement?
  2. In what ways and for what reasons did China develop its own brand of Marxism/Communism under Mao Zedong?
  3. To what extent was Spain under Franco (1939 to 1975) a Fascist state?
  4. How far is it true to say that a successful foreign policy is the most important factor for a single party ruler to remain in power? Examples should be given from two countries each chosen from a different region.
  5. “In the twentieth century right-wing single party states have often been the result of a conservative reaction to change whilst the left-wing single party states have achieved power as the outcome of a revolutionary process against tradition.” Using examples from at least two regions explain how far you agree with this quotation.

Topic 5: The Cold War

  1. “Ideological differences played only a minor role in the origin and development of the Cold War.” How far do you agree with this statement?
  2. In what ways and for what reasons did the Cold War affect the Middle East?
  3. Analyze the importance of spheres of interest for one of the superpowers in the Cold War.
  4. Assess the importance in the development of the Cold War of two of the following: the Yalta Conference; Berlin; the arms race; non-alignment; South East Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO).
  5. Examine the impact of the Cold War on the social life and culture of two countries each chosen from a different region.

2000

Topic 1: Causes, practices and effects of war

  1. Assess the importance of nationalism and selfish ambition as causes of twentieth century wars. Reference must be made to at least two wars.
  2. Examine critically two treaties and evaluate their success in resolving the armed conflicts which necessitated the treaties.
  3. Compare and contrast the effects for the country concerned of two of the following: the Chinese Civil War, the Nigerian Civil War, the Spanish Civil War.
  4. Assess the significance of either the Mexican Revolution (1910-1940) or the Vietnam War (1964-1975).

Topic 3: The rise and rule of single party states

  1. In what ways and for what reasons did rulers of single party states play an important role in world affairs between 1917 and 1945?
  2. Identify the main principles of Communism and assess how far these principles were put into practice by one Communist rule between 1900 and 1990.
  3. Assess the contributions of organizational and leadership qualities in maintaining power two single party rulers, each chosen from a different region.
  4. Analyze the role and status of women in two of the following: Maoist China, Nazi Germany, Peronist Argentina.

Topic 5: The Cold War

  1. “Ideological differences played little part in the origin of the Cold War.” How far do you agree with this judgement?
  2. To what extent was Germany the cause of East/West disagreements between 1943 and 1963?
  3. Define “superpower rivalry” and assess its importance in international politics since 1945.
  4. Analyze the role of either Cuba or Vietnam in the development of the Cold War.
  5. Compare and contrast the economic and social impact of the Cold War on two countries, each chosen from a different region.

2001

Topic 1: Causes, Practices and Effects of War

  1. Analyze the reasons for the outbreak of war either in Algeria in 1954, or in Korea in 1950.
  2. In what ways and for what reasons did foreign intervention play an important role in two civil war, each chosen from a different region?
  3. Evaluate the successes and failures of one twentieth century treaty in addressing the causes of conflict, and restoring peace and normality.

Topic 3: The rise and rule of single party states

  1. “Promises of improved social and economic conditions win more support for would-be single party rulers than ideological pronouncements.” How far do you agree with this claim?
  2. Compare and contrast the organization of one Communist state with one Fascist state.
  3. Analyze the methods by which either Castro or Stalin maintained his position as ruler of a single party state.
  4. Evaluate the attempts of two rulers of single party states, each chosen from a different region, to control and use the media.

Topic 5: The Cold War

  1. “The Cold War was caused by fear, not aggression.” To what extent does this view explain how the Cold War developed between 1945 and 1949?
  2. Examine the impact of the Cold War on educational developments in two countries, each chosen from a different region.
  3. Compare and contrast the aims and policies of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the Warsaw Pact up to 1970.
  4. For what reasons, and with what results, up to 1963, did the United States adopt the policy known as “containment”?

2002

Topic I: Causes, Practices and Effects of War

  1. To what extent has any twentieth century war changed the role of women?
  2. How far do you agree with the view of some recent historians that Chamberlain’s appeasement of Hitler at Munich was NOT a mistake?
  3. “The First and Second World Wars were European civil wars that required outside intervention to settle.” How far do you agree with this quotation?
  4. In what ways did Truman’s policy of “limited warfare” in Korea set the pattern of military conflict up to 1990?

Topic 3: The Rise and the rule of Single Party States

  1. Analyse the conditions which led to the establishment of two single party states each chosen from a different region.
  2. How and why have religious groups a) opposed, and b) supported single party regimes?
  3. Assess the success and failure of two rulers of single party regimes, each chosen from a different region, in solving the social and economic problems of their countries.
  4. To what extent was the success of Stalin in retaining power in the USSR between 1929 and 1953 due to the appeal of Communism?
  5. Examine the impact outside their own countries of two of the following: Fidel Castro, Gamel Abdel Nasser, Julius Nyerere, Mao Zedong.

Topic 5: The Cold War

  1. Assess the significance for the development of the Cold War between 1945 and 1950 of three of the following:
    1. The Yalta Conference, 1945
    2. The Iron Curtain speech, 1946
    3. The Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan, 1947
    4. The expulsion of Yugoslavia from the Soviet block, 1948
    5. The Berlin Blockade and Airlift, 1948-1949
    6. The formation of NATO, 1949.
  1. “A different kind of Cold War.” To what extent is this a valid statement about the Cold War after 1953?
  2. Explain how East/West relations a) affected and b) how the were affected by one of the following areas: the Middle East, Latin America, Asia, Africa.
  3. Using specific examples, evaluate the successes and/or failures of “Détente”.
2003 Test: Paper II

Topic 1: Causes, practices and effects of war

  1. What were the most frequent causes of twentieth century wars? Specific evidence from at least three wars should be used.
  2. In what ways, and to what extent, was the Second World War “total war”?
  3. How and why did technological developments play an important part in twentieth century wars?
  4. Analyze the causes and the results of one of the following: Chinese Civil War (1945-1949); Mexican Revolution (1910-1940); Spanish Civil War (1936-1939).

Topic 3: The rise and rule of single party states

  1. “In order to achieve and retain power a leader of a single-party state needed to be ruthless, blind to human suffering, and yet charismatic.” To what extent do you agree with this assertion?
  2. Account for the rise to power of one of the following: Castro; Mussolini; Nasser.
  3. Compare and contrast the economic and social policies of Mao and Stalin.
  4. In what ways, and for what reasons, did the aims and policies of two or more right wing rulers of single party states differ?
  5. Examine the role of education and/or the arts in two single party states, each chosen from a different region.

Topic 5: The Cold War

  1. How, and to what extent, did the conferences at Yalta and Potsdam (1945) contributed to the origin of the Cold War?
  2. “Although it began in Europe the spread of the Cold War to other regions was a much more dangerous development.” To what extent do you agree with this judgment?
  3. How and why did the policies of either the USA or the USSR affect superpower rivalry between 1950 and 1970?
  4. In what ways were gender and social issues affected by the Cold War?
  5. Assess the importance of détente and internal opposition to Communist rule in Communist countries, in ending the Cold War.

2004 Test: Paper II

Topic 1: Causes, practices and effects of war

  1. In what ways did the causes of the Second World War differ from the causes of the First World War?
  2. Evaluate the importance of naval warfare in twentieth century wars. Specific examples must be given from at least two wars.
  3. Why were there so many Arab-Israeli wars between 1948 and 1978?
  4. Analyze the results of two wars, each chosen from a different region.
  5. Assess the social and economic effects of one war on two of the countries involved, in the ten years following the end of the war.

Topic 3: The rise and rule of single party states

  1. Analyze the methods used by one single party state ruler in his successful bid for power.
  2. Evaluate the importance of ideology in the policies of two of the following rulers of single party states: Castro; Hitler; Lenin; Nyerere.
  3. Compare and contrast the foreign policies of two rulers of single party states, each chosen from a different region.
  4. In what ways, and to what extent, did either Nasser or Peron improve social and economic conditions?
  5. Examine the global impact of one ruler of a single party state.

Topic 5: The Cold War

  1. To what extent did events in the final year of the Second World War turn wartime allies into Cold War enemies?
  2. Compare and contrast the policies of the USA and the USSR towards Korea between 1945 and 1955.
  3. Assess the impact of the Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan on the development of the Cold War between 1945 and 1961.
  4. In what ways, and to what extent, did the Cold War become less confrontational after 1970?
  5. Assess the importance of social and economic issues in causing opposition to communist regimes.

May 2005 Test: Paper II

Topic 1 Causes, practices and effects of war1. Analyse the results of either the First World War or the Second World War.
2. Examine the impact of foreign intervention on either the Chinese Civil War or the Spanish Civil War.
3. Assess the social and economic causes of one twentieth century war.
4. Compare and contrast the use of naval warfare in two wars, each chosen from a different region.
5. For what reasons, and with what results, was 'limited' warfare a feature of the second half of the twentieth century?
Topic 2 Nationalist and independence movements, decolonization and challenges facing new states
6. To what extent was the colonial legacy the main problem in two non-European new states, each chosen from a different region?
7. Assess the causes of the rise of nationalism in one non-European new state.
8. Compare and contrast the independence movements in two developing states, one in Africa and the other in Asia.
9. For what reasons, and with what results, was either India or Kenya successful in obtaining independence?
10. Examine gender issues before and after independence in either Algeria or Pakistan.
Topic 3 The rise and rule of single-party states 
11. Analyse the methods used and the conditions which helped in the rise to power of one ruler of a single-party state.
12.Evaluate the successes and failures of one ruler of a single-party state.
13. Assess the methods used by either Lenin or Peron to maintain his regime.
14. Compare and contrast the influence outside their own countries of Hitler and Mao.
15. Examine the status of women in two single-party states, each chosen from a different region.
Topic 4 Peace and cooperation: international organizations and multiparty states
16. Why, in spite of early successes, did the League of Nations fail to prevent the outbreak of the Second World War?
17. In what ways, and with what success, did one twentieth century international organisation try to improve social and economic conditions?
18. To what extent did Nehru's government in India (1947-64) fulfil its expectations?
19. Compare and contrast the foreign policies of two multiparty states.
20. "The ideal form of government for the twentieth century was a multiparty state." To what extent do you agree with this assertion?
Topic 5 The Cold War

21. Assess the part played by differing ideologies in the origin of the Cold War.
22. In what ways, and with what results, was Germany the key focus of the early stages of the Cold War? 
23. Analyse the part played by Cuba in the development of the Cold War.
24. Evaluate the role of one superpower in the Cold War after 1970.
25. To what extent did economic problems in the Communist bloc bring about the end of the Cold War?
Topic 6 The state and its relationship with religion and with minorities
26. Compare and contrast the difficulties faced by two minorities (ethnic, racial or religious), each chosen from a different region.
27. Evaluate the impact of the state religion on law and morality in two countries.
28. Assess the relationship between an ethnic or racial minority with the ethnic or racial majority in that state.
29. For what reasons, and with what results, did religious majorities fear religious minorities in the twentieth century?
30. How did education both help and hinder the integration of minorities?

May 2006 PAPER 2

Topic 1 Causes, practices and effects of war

1. Compare and contrast the results of the First World War and the Second World War.
2. To what extent did technological developments ensure victory in twentieth century wars?

3. “No twentieth century war could be called a limited war.” To what extent do you agree with this assertion?

4. Analyse the causes of either the Spanish Civil War or the Korean War.

5. Assess the social results of two wars, each chosen from a different region.

Topic 2 Nationalist and independence movements, decolonisation and challenges facing new states
6. Analyse the factors favouring the growth of independence movements in one non-European colonial state.
7. For what reasons, and with what results, was either Ghana or India successful in obtaining independence?
8. Assess the economic problems facing one new non-European state in the ten years after independence.
9. Compare and contrast tribal influence in two African states after they had achieved independence. 10. Analyse the form of government after independence in either Algeria or Indonesia.

Topic 3 The rise and rule of single-party states

11. To what extent was the rise to power of either Hitler or Mao due to personal appeal and ability?
12. Compare and contrast the domestic policies of two rulers of single-party states, each chosen from a different region.
13. Assess the methods used by either Nasser or Perón to remain in power.

14. In what ways, and with what results, was propaganda used by one ruler of a single-party state?

15. Assess the importance of ideology for rulers of twentieth century single-party states.

Topic 4 Peace and cooperation: international organisations and multiparty states

16. “Peace and cooperation was an ideal that proved impossible to achieve through international
organisations in the twentieth century.” To what extent do you agree with this judgement?
17. Compare and contrast the peace keeping aims and methods of the League of Nations and the United Nations.
18. Evaluate the success of one multiparty state in improving the status of women.

19. Analyse the foreign policy of two multiparty states, each chosen from a different region.

20. Assess the successes and failures of governments in either Japan (1945-52) or the USA (1933-45). Topic 5 The Cold War

21. “An unnatural alliance that was bound to fall apart after the defeat of the common enemy.” To what extent does this statement explain the origin of the Cold War?
22. In what ways, and with what results, did the United States’ Cold War policy of containment affect Cuba after 1959?
23. Compare and contrast the roles of China and Germany in the Cold War.

24. Analyse the importance of détente in ending the Cold War.

25. Examine the part played by economic issues in the development of the Cold War.

Topic 6 The state and its relationship with religion and with minorities

26. Assess the impact on politics of relations between church and state in two countries, each chosen
from a different region.
27. Compare and contrast the efforts of two ethnic/racial minorities, each chosen from a different region, to obtain equality and self determination.
28. Assess the effects of the persecution of religious minorities during the twentieth century.

29. For what reasons, and in what ways, did integration affect the role and status of women belonging to ethnic/racial minorities?
30. “The treatment of minorities improved in the second half of the twentieth century.” To what extent do you agree with this judgement?

May 2008: Paper II TZ1

Topic 1 Causes, practices and effects of war

1. Compare and contrast the causes of the First World War and the Second World War.
2. To what extent did changes in military tactics and strategies determine the outcome of twentieth century wars?
3. “Even in the twentieth century the term ‘total war’ could not be applied to any war.” To what extent do you agree with this judgement?
4. Analyse the results of either the Mexican Revolution or the Russian Civil War.

5. In what ways and with what results did two wars, each chosen from a different region, affect the role and status of women?

Topic 3 The rise and rule of single-party states

11. Compare and contrast the rise to power of two rulers of single-party states, each chosen from a different region.
12. To what extent was either Mussolini, between 1922 and 1945, or Nasser, between 1954 and 1970, successful in achieving his aims?
13. In what ways did one ruler of a single-party state try to use education to support his regime?

14. Analyse the successes and failures of the political career of either Lenin or Nyerere.

15. Assess the importance of foreign policy for rulers of single-party states. 
Topic 4 Peace and cooperation: international organizations and multiparty states

16. To what extent did international organizations find it difficult to achieve peace and cooperation in the twentieth century?

17. Compare and contrast the foundation and structure of the League of Nations and the United Nations.
18. “A twentieth century multiparty state was government by the people for the people.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
19. Analyse the social and economic policies of two multiparty states, each chosen from a different region.
20. Assess the successes and failures of either F D Roosevelt’s government of the USA (1933–45) or South Africa’s transition from apartheid to a non-racial democracy under Nelson Mandela (1985–95).

Topic 5 The Cold War

21. Analyse the origin of East-West rivalry and explain why it developed into the Cold War.
22. For what reasons, and with what results, did the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan affect Cold War development?
23. Compare and contrast the roles of Korea and Vietnam in the Cold War.

24. Explain the meaning of two of the following and show how each affected the development of the Cold War: containment; brinkmanship; non-alignment; détente.

25. When and why did the Cold War end?

May 2008: Paper II TZ2

Topic 1 Causes, practices and effects of war

1. Compare and contrast the causes of the Korean War and the Vietnam War.
2. Examine the role of warfare either at sea or in the air in two wars each chosen from a different region.
3. Why, and with what results, was the First World War not confined to Europe?
4. Analyse the results of one twentieth century treaty or peace settlement.
5. For what reasons, and in what ways, did one twentieth century war affect the social and economic conditions of two countries fighting in it?

Topic 3 The rise and rule of single-party states

11. Analyse the rise to power of either Hitler or Lenin.
12. Compare and contrast the regime of one right wing and one left wing single-party state.

13. With reference to at least two rulers, assess the importance of social and economic policies for rulers of single-party states.
14. In what ways, and with what results, did either Castro or Mussolini use foreign policy to support his regime?
15. To what extent was the ruler of one single-party state successful in achieving his aims? 

Topic 4 Peace and cooperation: international organizations and multiparty states
16. How successful were international organizations in achieving peace in the second half of the twentieth century?
17. Compare and contrast the social and economic policies of the League of Nations and the United Nations.
18. “Democratic government can only be achieved in a multiparty state.” To what extent do you agree with this assertion?
19. Discuss the domestic and foreign policies of the government of either the USA (1933 to 1945), or Spain (1975 to 1990).
20. Assess the successes and failures of the foreign policies of two multiparty states each chosen from a different region.

May 2009: Paper II

Topic 1 Causes, practices and effects of war

1. Compare and contrast the causes of two twentieth century civil wars.
2. Define guerilla warfare, and discuss its significance in two wars, each chosen from a different region.
3. Analyse (a) the short-term results, and (b) the long-term results up to 1935, of the First World War.

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