I. General Points to Consider
When considering whether to include content in an appendix, keep in mind the following points:
- It is usually good practice to include your raw data in an appendix, laying it out in a clear format so the reader can re-check your results. Another option if you have a large amount of raw data is to consider placing it online and note that this is the appendix to your research paper.
- Any tables and figures included in the appendix should be numbered as a separate sequence from the main paper. Remember that appendices contain non-essential information that, if removed, would not diminish a reader's ability to understand the research problem being investigated. This is why non-textual elements should not carry over the sequential numbering of non-textual elements in the body of your paper.
- If you have more than three appendices, consider listing them on a separate page at the beginning of your paper. This will help the reader know before reading the paper what information is included in the appendices [always list the appendix or appendices in a table of contents].
- The appendix can be a good place to put maps, photographs, diagrams, and other images, if you feel that it will help the reader to understand the content of your paper, while keeping in mind the point that the study should be understood without them.
- An appendix should be streamlined and not loaded with a lot information. If you have a very long and complex appendix, it is a good idea to break it down into separate appendices, allowing the reader to find relevant information quickly as the information is covered in the body of the paper.
Never include an appendix that isn’t referred to in the text. All appendices should be summarized in your paper where it is relevant to the content. Appendices should also be arranged sequentially by the order they were first referenced in the text [i.e., Appendix 1 should not refer to text on page eight of your paper and Appendix 2 relate to text on page six].
There are few rules regarding what type of material can be included in an appendix, but here are some common examples:
- Correspondence -- if your research included collaborations with others or outreach to others, then correspondence in the form of letters, memorandums, or copies of emails from those you interacted with could be included.
- Interview Transcripts -- in qualitative research, interviewing respondents is often used to gather information. The full transcript from an interview is important so the reader can read the entire dialog between researcher and respondent.
- Non-textual elements -- as noted above, if there are a lot of non-textual items, such as, figures, tables, maps, charts, photographs, drawings, or graphs, think about highlighting examples in the text of the paper but include the remainder in an appendix.
- Questionnaires or surveys -- this is a common form of data gathering. Always include the survey instrument or questionnaires in an appendix so the reader understands not only the questions asked but the sequence in which they were asked. Include all variations of the instruments as well if different items were sent to different groups.
- Raw statistical data – this can include any numerical data that is too lengthy to include in charts or tables in its entirety within the text.
- Research instruments -- if you used a camera, or a recorder, or some other device to gather information and it is important for the reader to understand how that device was used; this information can be placed in an appendix.
- Sample calculations – this can include quantitative research formulas or detailed descriptions of how calculations were used to determine relationships and significance.
NOTE: Appendices should not be a dumping ground for information. Do not include vague or irrelevant information in an appendix; this additional information will not help the reader’s overall understanding and interpretation of your research and may only distract the reader from understanding the significance of your overall study.
ANOTHER NOTE: Appendices are intended to provide supplementary information that you have gathered or created; it is not intended to replicate or provide a copy of the work of others. For example, if you need to contrast the techniques of analysis used by other authors with your own method of analysis, summarize that information, and cite to the original work. In this case, a citation to the original work is sufficient enough to lead the reader to where you got the information. You do not need to provide this in an appendix.
Here are some general guideline on how to format appendices, but consult the writing style guide [e.g., APA] your professor wants you to use for more detail, if needed:
- Appendices may precede or follow your list of references.
- Each appendix begins on a new page.
- The order they are presented is dictated by the order they are mentioned in the text of your research paper.
- The heading should be "Appendix," followed by a letter or number [e.g., "Appendix A" or "Appendix 1"], centered and written in bold type.
- Appendices must be listed in the table of contents [if used].
- The page number(s) of the appendix/appendices will continue on with the numbering from the last page of the text.
Appendices. The Structure, Format, Content, and Style of a Journal-Style Scientific Paper. Department of Biology. Bates College; Appendices. Academic Skills Office, University of New England; Appendices. Writing Center, Walden University; Chapter 12, "Use of Appendices." In Guide to Effective Grant Writing: How to Write a Successful NIH Grant. Otto O. Yang. (New York: Kluwer Academic, 2005), pp. 55-57;Tables, Appendices, Footnotes and Endnotes. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University; Lunsford, Andrea A. and Robert Connors. The St. Martin's Handbook. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1989; What To Know About The Purpose And Format Of A Research Paper Appendix. LoyolaCollegeCulion.com.
Grade 8 Social Studies: Unit Five - Appendix 12
Writing an Historical Essay
The collection of evidence that indicates students have achieved the outcomes of a course is dependent upon their ability to demonstrate their achievement. Opportunities for demonstration of learning are dependent largely upon their ability to speak, write, and represent.
The historical essay is one of many venues for demonstrating the achievement of outcomes. It is not a language arts essay, although language arts skills speak to effective essay writing. The historical essay at the grade 8 level is not intended to be a highly academic research paper, although some of the rigor of research of the historian still apply. The following model is intended as a guide in the writing of a response to a significant but specific question in history. The teacher is also referred to SCO 1.2 and delineations 1.2.1 - 1.2.8 in this curriculum guide.
1. Identify a topic
At this beginning point, the student identifies a general area of interest that he or she thinks is significant. The teacher should help the student to think about whether the topic is defined well enough so that it can be researched, particularly if it is a study of local history.
• Newfoundland and Labrador's entry into Confederation
• Local house types
2. Develop a specific direction or focus question
To ensure that the essay is coherent and has a focus, the student needs to develop a key question, or thesis statement. The student needs to identify what is worth investigating about this general area. A part of the process is to explore the general area for research with others in the class. From the student’s reflection and discussion with his or her peers, the student may wish to develop a concept web to explore possible specific ideas that may flow from the general area of research. One of the specific directions may be framed into a statement that expresses a position that can be supported by historical sources.
• Smallwood's views on Confederation were not the same as those of Cashin.
(Delineations 4.1.4 and 4.1.5)
• Fishers lived in houses that were quite different from the local doctor's house.
(Local study for delineations 1.2.1 - 1.2.8; delineation 2.5.1)
3. Locate sources of information
To locate sources of information, the thesis statement should be broken into its key words or parts. These serve as headings for information on the topic. The next step is to identify the sources of information on each key word. The range of information sources will vary with the topic:
|local oral sources||CD-ROMS|
|tools / implements||films|
The student needs to be cautioned, of course, against getting drowned in a sea of materials. Only the resources that are most essential to the thesis statement should be selected.
4. Take notes
Students should read carefully and make sure that the information recorded is relevant to the topic and thesis statement. The sources of information should be reliable and accurate; facts should be distinguished from opinions. The notes should record the source of information and the page numbers in the case of printed text. Notes should be brief as possible - key words and phrases rather than total sentences. If an item is used as a direct quote in the paper, it should be copied as it is in the source and enclosed in quotation marks.
5. Write the working outline
The notes should be organized into a logical order so that they can be used to construct a working outline or framework for the essay. The outline will help the writer to detect any gaps in the information collected out of class. These gaps should be filled in and, if necessary, the outline may be revised.
6. Write the first draft
When students are satisfied that they have enough information, they should begin to write the first draft of their essay. At this time, all they need is the outline, the notes and a dictionary or thesaurus.
The essay will consist of an introductory paragraph in which the topic is introduced and the thesis statement is established. This should be followed by a number of middle paragraphs to focus on the main arguments of the paper and the supporting evidence that has been found to reinforce them. A concluding paragraph should summarize the findings and restate the thesis statement.
Students should also prepare the title page and, if the teacher requires it, footnotes and bibliography.
7. Revise the first draft
The essay should be proofread to improve the content, organization, word choice, voice, sentence fluency, and conventions. The student may wish to ask a classmate to read the essay and offer suggestions for improvement. The teacher may also wish to give some feedback.
8. Write the final paper
The student is now in a position to write the final draft. Attention should be given to the suggestions that others made. The paper should be thoroughly checked for any errors.